Essay Archives


November 2nd, 2009

From Revolution to Reunification: The East German Wende Two Decades Later

Submitted by Steven Pfaff, University of Washington

In 1989, protest erupted across the socialist world, shaking capitols from Beijing to Berlin. Yet what Daniel Chirot called the world-wide “crisis of Leninism” had remarkably different origins and trajectories. While a few Communist regimes survived, the German Democratic Republic (GDR), popularly known as East Germany, was one of states that collapsed. Uniquely, its collapse […]

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